The bioflow group utilises novel numerical techniques to study fluid dynamics in the cardiovascular system. This is part of an effort to enhance our understanding of mechanisms involved in the initiation of cardiovascular diseases as well as the development of new diagnostic tools. To achieve the goals of the group we have the following research areas of interest;

- Arterial pulse-wave propagation,
- Low diffusion coefficient mass transport of blood-borne molecules,
- Wall shear metrics and their association with atherogenesis,
- Transport within the arterial wall.

## Cardiac Electrophysiology

The cardiac electrophysiology group is using patient-specific models of electrical wavefronts in the heart to develop a mechanistic understanding of the development and perpetuation of arrhythmias. This includes the following topics:

- Patient-specific models created through assimilation of clinical electrical and imaging data
- Development of high-performance simulations using optimised high-order methods
- Use of high-order manifold representations of the left atrium to improve simulation performance [1]

[1]

[Bibtex]

**C. Cantwell, S. Yakovlev, R. Kirby, N. Peters, and S. Sherwin**, “High-order spectral/hp element discretisation for reaction-diffusion problems on surfaces: application to cardiac electrophysiology,” Journal of computational physics, vol. 257, pp. 813-829, 2014.[Bibtex]

```
@article{cantwell2014high-orderelectrophysiology,
author = "Cantwell, CD and Yakovlev, S and Kirby, RM and Peters, NS and Sherwin, SJ",
journal = "JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS",
month = "Jan",
pages = "813--829",
publisher = "ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE",
title = "High-order spectral/hp element discretisation for reaction-diffusion problems on surfaces: Application to cardiac electrophysiology",
url = "http://www2.imperial.ac.uk/ssherw/spectralhp/papers/JCP-CaYaKiPeSh_13.pdf",
volume = "257",
year = "2014",
abstract = "We present a numerical discretisation of an embedded two-dimensional manifold using high-order continuous Galerkin spectral/hp elements, which provide exponential convergence of the solution with increasing polynomial order, while retaining geometric flexibility in the representation of the domain. Our work is motivated by applications in cardiac electrophysiology where sharp gradients in the solution benefit from the high-order discretisation, while the compu- tational cost of anatomically-realistic models can be reduced through the surface representation. We describe and validate our discretisation and provide a demonstration of its application to modeling electrochemical propagation across a human left atrium.",
doi = "10.1016/j.jcp.2013.10.019",
issn = "0021-9991",
keyword = "Science \\& Technology",
keyword = "Technology",
keyword = "Physical Sciences",
keyword = "Computer Science, Interdisciplinary Applications",
keyword = "Physics, Mathematical",
keyword = "Computer Science",
keyword = "Physics",
keyword = "COMPUTER SCIENCE, INTERDISCIPLINARY APPLICATIONS",
keyword = "PHYSICS, MATHEMATICAL",
keyword = "High-order finite elements",
keyword = "Spectral/hp elements",
keyword = "Continuous Galerkin method",
keyword = "Surface PDE",
keyword = "Cardiac electrophysiology",
keyword = "Monodomain equation",
keyword = "PARTIAL-DIFFERENTIAL-EQUATIONS",
keyword = "CLOSEST POINT METHOD",
keyword = "PARABOLIC EQUATIONS",
keyword = "GENERAL GEOMETRIES",
keyword = "FINITE-ELEMENTS",
keyword = "PDES",
keyword = "MESHES",
language = "English",
day = "15",
publicationstatus = "published",
}
```